FIGHT CORRUPTION

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MASS, PEER-TO-PEER, CROWD-SOURCED POLITICAL CORRUPTION INTERDICTION

SHARE THIS ARTICLE WITH OTHERS AS PDF:  MASS PEER-TO-PEER CROWD SOURCED CORRUPTION INTERDICTION 2.88.997-EE-F.pdf

 

 

- A collaboratively edited wiki-document coordinated by Dawn E. and Julian A.

 

 

 

 

Using these proven tactics and methodologies, a task-force of voters, journalists, investigators and forensic experts have caused over 300 billion dollars in losses to corrupt companies and individuals and bankrupted their criminally evil operations with 100% legal procedures. You can do this too, on your own, without breaking a single law and with the gratitude of every citizen. Here is how.

 

As a target, let’s take a look at the corrupt politicians, their Silicon Valley oligarch financiers, their dirty corporate law firms and their media attack squads that have demonstrated a cycle of attack and harm to you as a citizen.

 

They use criminally corrupt and illicit operations designed to steal taxpayer monies and they character assassinate, defame, murder, black-list, and monopolize industries against anyone who speaks out against them.

 

They formed a business and political manipulation “Cartel” intended to inflict corruption upon the United States Federal Government, The New York State Government and the California State Government, as defined by law under RICO Racketeering Statutes for the purpose of manipulating the value of stock market holdings and controlling political policy decisions. They violated “Treason” laws against the nation.

 

The criminally corrupt are enabled by criminally corrupt law firms who spend all day operating legal evasion schemes. Public efforts took down the Brobeck law firm and hundreds of others that were doing such crime cover-ups. There are many more needing to be terminated. Wilson Sonsini, Perkins Coi, Covington and Burling are targeted for termination next. Watch the TV show called “Queen Of The South” and watch how the cartel lawyer for the main drug queen is actually running the system. Every lawyer like that needs to be hunted down and 100% legally terminated.

 

These criminally corrupt people, companies and organizations are now going to experience payback, for their crimes against society, for the rest of their time on Earth. Their historical legacy after they die will remember each of them, in every history book, as: “...political criminals, insider trading mobsters and crony taxpayer abusing scum...”.

 

Society provides only 3 options when these people try to take your life and your ethical society: 1.) Kill them – This is illegal. 2.) Sue them - While it is easy to sue them for their crimes, their criminally corrupt law firms will only blockade and/or delay such litigation. 3.) Expose them and boycott them – This has proven to work best.

 

Because they are scumbags who have been accused, by reporters, employees, spouses and tipsters, of very evil bribery, sex abuse, drug deals, political crimes, tax evasion, crony government payola, industry black-lists, money laundering, defamation, libel, slander, misogyny, stock market rigging, election manipulation, global search engine fake news, employee abuse and other horrific crimes against society. Exposing them, and their enablers, is proven method to take them down. A person, company or organization who commits crimes has always, according to historical forensics data, been indicative as only just one small part of a deeply infected body which is fully corrupt and one which requires termination.

 

The take-down effort must last for the rest of their lives. It must not just be a passing fad inspired by a single news expose’. Society must never forget about what they did and never forgive them for attacking and damaging you, as a citizen, and for damaging and abusing society.

 

There are now massive free database software systems the public can use to build your collaborative case files. CERN in Switzerland uses billions of dollars of free global database software that you can use too. You will use the web to create shared public collaboration peer-to-peer crime interdiction databases. The databases have every piece of information about the bad guys that was ever created, ie: all of their addresses, account numbers, tax records, bank accounts, dating site records, phone numbers, fax numbers, IMEI device records, IP addresses, device serial numbers, every lover they cheated on, service calls, drug deals, hookers, rent boys, Uber and Lyft trip addresses, neighbors, GPS records, etc. All of this information can be legally acquired by the public. These narcissistic criminals put most of it out on the web themselves. The public has already built their own versions of Palantir, XKEYSCORE, and other CSI database tools. You must now use these tools to end corruption.

 

If you have the funds, you can hire ex-FBI, CIA, NSA, GCHQ and other top intelligence and crime interdiction experts. They have ways of watching the bad guys every second of every day. Many of them are already doing it out of a sense of public service and you can find them on Voat.co, Reddit.com, 4Chan and tens of thousands of online web sleuth and citizen investigator sites.

 

Did you know that WiFi and the ceramic objects around you can can make it look like there are not even walls where the bad guys are right now? Science has created a new world in which technology can see through walls and there is, LITERALLY, no place crooks can hide!

 

Face recognition can also source up every image of them that was on security cameras, store cameras, restaurant cameras, Google and Bing image databases, social networks, dating sites, traffic cameras, hotel and motel cameras and everything that has ever recorded their face; which is public domain. Everything they are connected to will be connected to them and psychologically analyzed. A map of every “secret” meeting they had each day can now be computer generated in minutes.

 

If these political crooks ever, for the rest of their life, cheat on taxes, take money off-the-books, lie on an application, get arrested, get sued, buy drugs, buy sex, cheat, hide money, use off-shore conduits, set-up an illicit trust fund or shell corporation, get an STD, lie on a dating site, abuse or extort an employee, abuse a co-worker, plagiarize, break the law, run a real estate scam, hide insider stock trading, provide political campaign services without filing detailed and accurate FEC disclosures, support a political campaign, spend or receive any money that they do not report, etc… THE PUBLIC CAN NOW CATCH THEM!

 

There is now no place on Earth a corrupt politician or their corrupt financier can hide from the crowd-sourced investigations. The public now has investigators online across the globe. The public can now count on friends in Congress, journalists, law enforcement and the intelligence community to help taxpayers never let the corrupt out of their sights!

 

You, as a PUBLIC INVESTIGATOR never have to do creepy illicit things, like they do, so you have nothing to worry about.

 

THEY have PLENTY to worry about. These tactics only work on Bad Guys like them!

 

Each of these crooks are, today, sitting at the edge of the same precipice that BILL COSBY, FOREX, SOLYNDRA, ABOUND SOLAR, A123, ENERDEL, AMY PASCAL, E.F.HUTTON, RADIO SHACK, ENRON, MCI WORLDCOM, EASTERN AIRLINES, STANDARD OIL, ERIC HOLDER, STEVEN CHU, ARTHUR ANDERSON, DELOREAN, PETS.COM, BEAR STEARNS, BEATRICE FOODS, HEALTHSOUTH, ALLEN STANFORD, TYCO, LANCE ARMSTRONG, PARMALAT, BANINTER, HSBC, GLOBAL CROSSING LTD., BLACKBERRY, HIH INSURANCE, IMCLONE, DEUTSCHE BANK (SPY CASE), URBAN BANK, JEROME KERVIEL, BARCLAYS BANK, BRE-X, FISKER, BARINGS BANK, PATRICIA DUNN, SIEMENS AG, PETROBAS, FERNANDO MARCOS, KELLOG BROWN AND ROOT, BAE SYSTEMS, KERRY KHAN, ALCATEL-LUCENT SA, PRESIDENT RICHARD NIXON, HARVEY WEINSTEIN, ERIC SCHNIDERMAN, JAMES COMEY...and many, many more, sat at just before they slid down their filthy funnels straight to hell. We all hope they enjoy the ride! Our public efforts took those players down! If the crooks think they are immune, they are 100% wrong! Google, Facebook, Twitter, Kliener Perkins, Snapchat, Musk, and the rest of the Silicon Valley Cartel should expect a life-time of investigations.

 

Here are a few of the thousands of 100% legal methods for wiping out creeps like them.

 

These corrupt politicians, the Silicon Valley Mafia, their political shills and their crony companies can be terminated from the comfort of any voter’s living room.

 

This only works on criminals and the corrupt.

 

The “good guys” have nothing to fear.

 

Our goal is to get over 300 million voters working on these efforts ASAP:

 

Step-By-Step Termination Instructions For The Public To Use On Corrupt Targets:

 

- Make sure your interdiction of their illicit deeds lasts the rest of their life. Make it your hobby and engage in it every month. Put it on your calendar to have a monthly action day.

 

- Bankrupt their corrupt companies by contacting EVERY single advertising director for EVERY company that advertises with them to show them the evidence and encourage them to stop advertising with the suspect under threat of boycott.

 

- List out every past employee of the tabloid that was used to attack the taxpayers.

 

- Bankrupt their corrupt companies by contacting EVERY single employee that works for them to show them the evidence and encourage them to quit.

 

- Bankrupt their corrupt companies by contacting EVERY single investor that funds them to show them the evidence and encourage them to divest.

 

- Use “Espionage Journalism” like Project Veritas does. Sneak in to the bad guys operation using your cell phone as a broadcast camera and film the crooks doing crooked things.

 

- Contact billionaire’s (ie: Peter Thiel, Larry Ellison, etc.) to get them to sponsor a RICO, or other kind of lawsuit, against these corrupt parties. Use proxies to sue the corrupt (ie: Get Thiel to pay for some other guy to sue Gawker for you). The Legal Proxy is one of your biggest assets. You can get billions of dollars of lawsuits executed against corrupt mega giants. Make Hulk Hogan be YOUR proxy. He takes all of the risk and YOU get to see a criminally corrupt oligarch (ie: Nick Denton and Gawker/Gizmodo Media) ground into the dirt. Read the news daily and PACER.GOV and FIND YOUR PROXY!

 

- Bankrupt their corrupt companies by contacting EVERY user of their company, via mass media and personal out-reach, to show them the evidence and encourage them to cancel their subscriptions and ‘poison’ their data by filling their profiles with fantasy data.

 

- See the movie: “DARK MONEY’ ! Understand what “Dark Money” is. Then cut off every possible source of the bad guys “Dark Money and expose every party involved in Dark Money schemes.

 

- Write every government agency with a short, concise, detailed complaint letter and say IN YOUR LETTER that “THIS LETTER IS ON FOIA PUBLIC RECORD”. These days, all government documents are leaked, hacked or FOIA’d so assume the public will be reading your letter. Compose your letter as if you were writing it for the audience of the Jerry Springer show so that the public will be interested in it, excited about it and amused by it. This will help the public help you to push your issue. Audacious controversy gets traction.

 

- Bankrupt their corrupt companies by contacting EVERY single member of Congress and regulatory agencies to show them the evidence and demand, in writing, a federal investigation.

 

- Bankrupt their corrupt companies by exposing corrupt sources of supply to the news and the public; ie: Elon Musk uses “blood cobalt” mines in the Congo which rely on child labor and mercenaries to operate the cobalt mineral mines.

 

- Expose the covert sex cults (ie: Pizza Gate, NXIUM, Burning Man, Mission Control, Power Exchange, etc.) that they frequent.

 

- Look on Linkedin and other databases to contact their former interns to see if they sexually or mentally abused that intern and help that intern find lawyers (ie: Lawless Firm, AllRed, etc.).

 

- All of the data of famous corrupt persons and corporations has been hacked and acquired by many, many parties over the last decade. Watch for it to get leaked on the web or go search the ICIJ, Wikileaks and related databases for keywords about your targets. Expose what you find to the public. Cross reference what you find with the Palantir, Taleo, Bitcoin Trace, PayPal Trace, VISA Trace, D&B Insider, Gust-Scan, etc. commercially available databases and you will have an even more powerful search than the NSA’s XKEYSCORE tool.

 

- Expose the trust funds, shell corporations and real estate contracts that they and their family own and make sure the IRS and SEC knows about those slush fund pots. Find all of their insider trading payola scams and expose them.

 

- Expose every reporter and ‘stock analyst’ that is actually a shill for the corrupt. Call them out by name in press releases and your own news articles. Demand to see their financial records if they claim to have never been paid by the corrupt entity in question.

 

- Expose the racist, tribal, misogynist organizations that the majority of their executive hires are part of.

 

- Investigate them and share your investigation data, from public data resources, on databases. All of their addresses, account numbers, tax records, bank accounts, dating site records, phone numbers, fax numbers, IMEI device records, IP addresses, device serial numbers, etc. are on public record.

 

- As Comey, et al; proved, there are crooks at the FBI...but there will always be, at least, one Elliot Ness kind of good guy at the FBI. DO report your findings to the FBI, in writing, but report to EVERY main, and regional FBI office, in writing, with a carbon copy to the media. It only takes one good FBI agent to get an official FBI case going. The same goes for the SEC, The EU and the CFTC.

 

- These incredibly abusive people have an inordinate number of divorce lawsuits for abusive behavior. Showcase the most revealing text from those abusive divorce court filings.

 

- Write ‘Request For Prosecution’ requests to every major law enforcement agency and send copies of those requests to every other law enforcement agency and independent news reporters.

 

- If they run for office, confront them (legally) at public speaking events and hand out one page fliers about their crimes to the public at these events. Name their crony financial backers out loud at these events.

 

- File charges with the FEC for campaign finance violations. Ie: In one year Google reported a million in campaign contribution cash to one party but they actually provided many billions of campaign contributions via search engine rigging and perception manipulation services. Report that to the FEC and demand to know what the FEC is doing about it. Ask the FEC, in writing, every month until you get an answer in writing.

 

- Don’t just ‘follow the money’. Make fun charts and diagrams of the illicit funds routes and mass distribute those graphics.

 

- Meme them forever.

 

- Uncover every: illicit sex partner and who they cheated on; drug deals; hooker; rent boy; Uber and Lyft trip route; neighbors who complained about them; GPS records, social media posting that hinted at a political agenda, etc. All of this information can be legally acquired. They put most of it out on the web themselves and agreed to let Facebook, Uber and Google sell the data.

 

- Search every face recognition database with automated search tools. They agreed to allow their image on databases for security cameras, Walmart cameras, restaurant cameras, Google and Bing image databases, social networks, dating sites, traffic cameras, hotel and motel cameras and everything that has ever recorded their face; which is public domain. Check out what they were doing at each place they were recorded.

 

- Report every illicit deed done by the corrupt to large Congressional, news writer, social network and voter mass distribution systems.

 

- Learn ‘Veil Protection Strategies’ and How to Bust Them’.

 

- Break their cover-ups. Carbon copy every Inspector General (IG), reporter and social media resource you can find. Never allow only a few people to be the only ones that know what you uncovered. Tell everyone and never stop finding new people to tell. Use the “Streisand Effect”.

 

- If they ever, for the rest of their life: cheat on taxes, take money off-the-books, lie on an application, get arrested, get sued, buy drugs, buy sex, cheat, hide money, use off-shore conduits, set-up an illicit trust fund or shell corporation, get an STD, lie on a dating site, abuse or extort an employee, abuse a co-worker, plagiarize, break the law, run a real estate scam, hide insider stock trading, provide political campaign services without filing detailed and accurate FEC disclosures, support a political campaign, spend or receive any money that they do not report, etc.; THEN YOU EXPOSE THEM AND THE ILLICIT ACTIONS THEY TOOK.

 

- Educate yourself by typing this phrase into the top 5 non-Google search engines: “How To Be A Private Investigator” and read all of the results. Try more searches, like: “Investigation methods” or “Background check methods” or “Investigate a politician”, etc. There are thousands of other legal techniques in addition to those few listed here. They all work if you are persistent.

 

- Learn how to put a covert media alarm in ‘Corporate Poison Pills’ and find ‘Criminal Back-Dating’.

 

- Track the spouses finances of corrupt Senators and expose the crony deals to the world.

 

- Make certain that you find every other voter and community group who might help you. Support their efforts and share what you have uncovered with them. Use the web to guarantee that there is no place on Earth they can hide from justice. Work to mesh investigators, Congress, journalists, law enforcement, intelligence community, voters and your friends and family to never let them out of your sights!

 

- Use social media, press releases, direct mail, PR and publicity stunts to seek out and join every other person or group, in the world, who also hates corruption. Share these notes with them and ask them to “pass them around...”

 

 

Hundreds of corrupt public officials have now been terminated since the main public web corruption purge efforts began in 2009. The corrupt are fools if they think they are immune. There is no “invisible cloak of corruption”. Every single day a shocking new set of revelations ends the career or some, now notorious, well known political figure.

 

If the corrupt think they hid their deeds in private texts, whispered restaurant conversations, secret home servers, the back seats of Uber and Lyft, closed doors in the back room or Cayman Islands hotel rooms THEY COULD NOT BE MORE MISTAKEN!

 

Every trust fund that they and their family own has been tracked.

 

Every Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan, Wells Fargo, and other I-Bank account they, and their corrupt family own, has been tracked and cross referenced to every political action they participated in that resulted in valuation increases to their crony insider accounts.

 

Every stock market account they and their family own has been tracked and cross referenced to every political action they took that might have increased the valuation of those stocks. Every sale of stock they engaged in is being analyzed for “pump-and-dump” illegality. ICIJ and Wikileaks still have tens of thousands of investigative documents that need to be reviewed. Volunteer to help find keywords and incrimination data in those records.

 

Every dirty off-shore account in Switzerland, the Caymans, Brazil and all of their other hiding places has been tracked and data-based on fully resourced online tracking databases.

 

Every person these criminal politicians ever communicated with on a dating site is being contacted. Any abuse, sexual misdeeds, sexting, porno pictures and lies are being documented and reported. Dating sites sell their user data and all of their server records, since inception, are available to the public, investigators and law enforcement with a single credit card purchase thanks to Facebook, Google and Axciom. They caught two different NY AG’s by reading their Match.com messages.

 

The Russians, Chinese, activists and bored teens have been entering the electronic device back doors on every router and consumer electronics device for decades and vacuuming up every record and file on every corporate and government network. Now they sell, or freely provide, those records to every public-interest law suit litigant to help them sue corrupt politicians and their financiers.

 

If they ever beat or abused a woman or child, it will be uncovered and reported just like Harvey, Huma’s Weiner and the New York AG were outed!

 

Hundreds of thousands of new non-main-stream, non-party-controlled, non-corporate owned news outlets have been created and they now reach the majority of the voting public. Hundreds of thousands of new voters are invited to these sites every hour, around the world. These news sites are exposing them and exposing the “Main Stream Fake News” that the corrupt thought they controlled.

 

There is no under-age sex scheme that they are involved in that will not be found out and exposed.

There is no male or female prostitute that they used that will not be found out and exposed.

 

There are no abuse charges in your divorce filings and other documents that will not be uncovered.

 

There is no intern that they sexually abused that will not be protected when they tell their story about them.

 

For major anti-corruption lawsuit efforts we had to find the hidden money that corrupt Silicon Valley political financing billionaires had spent billions of dollars to hide. How hard was it to peel the skins off of Google’s onion? Thanks to modern law enforcement and intelligence technology, it was not hard at all.

 

The fluency and practice of piercing the corporate veil & alter ego liability shields of political manipulation bosses such as George Soros, Eric Schmidt, Larry Page, Elon Musk and their colleagues,has become increasingly important in recent years due to changes in the law and business cycles.

 

As more small taxpayers need to help hunt down the corrupt, it is increasingly critical for taxpayers to be fluent with the cutting-edge techniques and best tools to pierce & dissolve the corporate veil, as well as determine alter ego liability. The growing number of bankruptcies, foreclosures, and judgments has dramatically increased the need for forensic experts proficient in the science of effective judgment enforcement and asset recovery against the Silicon Mafia collection of corrupt California tech companies.

 

Ie: Any corrupt Department of Energy employer or contractor can now be sued, lose their home and have the courts transfer all of their assets away.

 

It is critical for action groups to understand the best strategies to suck dry the corporate assets in judgments for cases and how to sue individual State and Federal workers.

 

Any member of the public can now begin piercing of the Google corporate veil, navigating complex determinations on corporate liability, strategies involving legal alter ego, and breaking open both corporate & personal liability with your home computer.

 

We use tools that not only include, but exceed, the capabilities of XKEYSCORE, Palantir, Taleo, Bitcoin Trace, PayPal Trace, VISA Trace, D&B Insider, Gust-Scan, and hundreds of other executive asset tracking and intelligence engines.

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

You, as a voter, need to learn how to:

 

Expose Veil Protection Strategies and How to Bust Through Them

Expose Liabilities for the Obligations of the Entity That Wilson Sonsini Created For Google & Tesla and How We Busted Through Them In Less Than 24 Hours

Employ Best Practices in Litigating the Veil Piercing Case in a Gawker Media-Like Laundering Operation

Snag The Corrupt With Veil Piercing Tactics & Fraudulent Conveyances With Sting Operations

Inform The Corrupt About How Dire Their Situations Are In the New Information Age

Expose Corporate Entities Used to Diminish Liability And Use Them As Evidence Against The Corrupt

Understand the Alter Ego of Insane Silicon Valley Tech Billionaires

Run Reverse Veil Piercing Investigations

Connect the Separate "Personalities" of the Corporation & Shareholders

 

From the underlying substantive law to practical aspects of asset protection planning (i.e., what works and what does not), new groups are teaching the public everything they need to know about dissolving corporate and executive asset protection like butter on a frying pan.

 

From Gawker to Enron and from Solyndra to Nigerian War Lords, From Steven Chu and Eric Holder to Brian Goncher and Steve Jurvetson; taxpayers are now only a few mouse clicks away from the deepest family trust fund hide-aways and the darkest sexual services transactional relationship disclosure.

 

The public can now see how to uncover assets from tort plaintiffs, lenders, government entities and other creditors, hidden in thousands of corporations, partnerships, LLCs and offshore entities. Online web sleuths who are distinguished CIA-FBI-NSA-Class staff will teach you specific approaches and solutions, including the most effective tactics, best practices, and the cutting-edge strategies to peel an Eric Schmidt or a John Doerr veil open like a Taco, 100% legally.

 

The public is learning various ways, from the very simple to the very sophisticated, to expose specific assets of State and Federal corrupt employees and illicit contractors: houses, bank and brokerage accounts, private islands, billionaire bunkers, hookers with billionaires homes in their names, rent-boy services, rental real estate, businesses and professional practices and retirement plans. Sue Obama? Yes! He is now a private, corrupt citizen!

 

Every taxpayer is now able to easily acquire the most effective strategies and latest law in destroying all corrupt asset protection for the criminal titans.

 

You, as a taxpayer, can learn and use these methods:

 

Practical Goals and Limitations of Asset Protection – Google bosses were never as safe as their consultants told them they were

Picking the Right Structure to Trick an Oligarch Into Incriminating himself

Understanding Fraudulent Transfers and How To Get Their Relatives To Disclose Them

Effectively Planning for Possible Challenges From Their Corrupt CPA’s

Busting Multi-Entity Structures For The Fake Sheathing of Business Assets

Dealing with Successor Liability; Get The Money From The Next Guy

Using Check-the-Box Election As Incrimination Evidence

Charging Order Protection and Tearing It Apart

Best Practices on Picking the Right Jurisdiction

Single Member LLCs, Poison Pills and Criminal Back-Dating

 

Every bad and immoral thing the corrupt did yesterday will be on the lead stories in the Wall Street Journal tomorrow.

 

Use this document as your check-list. Try to accomplish everything on it against the most corrupt entity you see in the news. It does not matter how big they are. These tactics work on a corrupt entity of ANY size!

 

Not only is this effort 100% legal, it is your moral obligation to undertake it. Even if you don’t care about the moral issues, you should care about the fact that your personal assets will increase and the quality of your life will improve as this program increases in effectiveness.

 

In “The 25% Revolution—How Big Does a Minority Have to Be to Reshape Society?” David Noonan describes how this sort of program by a committed few can influence the many and sweep away social conventions. In fact MASS, PEER-TO-PEER, CROWD-SOURCED POLITICAL CORRUPTION INTERDICTION has already moved to the influence of many.

 

Social change—from evolving attitudes toward gender and marijuana to the rise of Donald Trump to the emergence of the Black Lives Matter and #MeToo movements—is a constant. It is also mysterious, or so it can seem. For example, “How exactly did we get here?” might be asked by anyone who lived through decades of fierce prohibition and now buys pot at one of the more than 2,000 licensed dispensaries across the U.S.
 

A new study about the power of committed minorities to shift conventional thinking offers some surprising possible answers. Published this week in Science, the paper describes an online experiment in which researchers sought to determine what percentage of total population a minority needs to reach the critical mass necessary to reverse a majority viewpoint. The tipping point, they found, is just 25 percent. At and slightly above that level, contrarians were able to “convert” anywhere from 72 to 100 percent of the population of their respective groups. Prior to the efforts of the minority, the population had been in 100 percent agreement about their original position.

 

This is not about a small elite with disproportionate resources,” says Arnout van de Rijt, a sociologist at Utrecht University in the Netherlands who studies social networks and collective action, and was not involved in the study. “It's not about the Koch brothers influencing American public opinion. Rather, this is about a minority trying to change the status quo, and succeeding by being unrelenting. By committing to a new behavior, they repeatedly expose others to that new behavior until they start to copy it.”

 

The experiment was designed and led by Damon Centola, associate professor in the Annenberg School of Communications at the University of Pennsylvania. It involved 194 people randomly assigned to 10 “independent online groups,” which varied in size from 20 to 30 people. In the first step group members were shown an image of a face and told to name it. They interacted with one another in rotating pairs until they all agreed on a name. In the second step Centola and his colleagues seeded each group with “a small number of confederates…who attempted to overturn the established convention (the agreed-on name) by advancing a novel alternative.”

 

For the second step, as Centola explains it, the researchers began with a 15 percent minority model and gradually increased it to 35 percent. Nothing changed at 15 percent, and the established norm remained in place all the way up to 24 percent.

 

The magic number, the tipping point, turned out to be 25 percent. Minority groups smaller than that converted, on average, just 6 percent of the population. Among other things, Centola says, that 25 percent figure refutes a century of economic theory. “The classic economic model—the main thing we are responding to with this study—basically says that once an equilibrium is established, in order to change it you need 51 percent. And what these results say is no, a small minority can be really effective, even when people resist the minority view.” The team’s computer modeling indicated a 25 percent minority would retain its power to reverse social convention for populations as large as 100,000.

 

But the proportion has to be just right: One of the groups in the study consisted of 20 members, with four contrarians. Another group had 20 members and five contrarians—and that one extra person made all the difference. “In the group with four, nothing happens,” Centola says, “and with five you get complete conversion to the alternative norm.” The five, neatly enough, represented 25 percent of the group population. “One of the most interesting empirical, practical insights from these results is that at 24 percent—just below the threshold—you don’t see very much effect,” adds Centola, whose first book, How Behavior Spreads: The Science of Complex Contagions, comes out this month. “If you are those people trying to create change, it can be really disheartening.” When a committed minority effort starts to falter there is what Centola calls “a convention to give up,” and people start to call it quits. And of course members have no way to know when their group is just short of critical mass. They can be very close and simply not realize it. “So I would say to Black Lives Matter, #MeToo and all of these social change movements that approaching that tipping point is slow going, and you can see backsliding. But once you get over it, you’ll see a really large-scale impact.”

 

Real-life factors that can work against committed minorities—even when they reach or exceed critical mass—include a lack of interaction with other members, as well as competing committed minorities and what’s called “active resistance”—which pretty well describes the way many people in 2018 respond to political ideas with which they disagree. But even with such obstacles, Centola says the tipping point predicted in his model remains well below 50 percent.

 

Certain settings lend themselves to the group dynamics Centola describes in his study, and that includes the workplace. “Businesses are really great for this kind of thing,” he says, “because people in firms spend most of their day trying to coordinate with other people, and they exhibit the conventions that other people exhibit because they want to show that they’re good workers and members of the firm. So you can see very strong effects of a minority group committed to changing the culture of the population.”

 

The other environment in which the 25 percent effect is particularly evident, Centola says, is online—where people have large numbers of interactions with lots of other people, many of them strangers. This raises some tricky questions: Can a bot stand in for a member of a committed minority? And can a committed minority be composed of bots and the real people the bots influence, so that bots are actually driving the change? According to Centola, “In a space where people can’t distinguish people from bots, yes. If you get a concerted, focused effort by a group of agents acting as a minority view, they can be really effective.”

 

Yale sociologist Emily Erikson, who also studies social networks but was not involved with the study, sees the new paper partly as a warning. “In some sense it’s saying extreme voices can quickly take over public discourse,” she says. “Perhaps if we’re aware of that fact, we can guard against it.”

 

 

 

Draft 2.88.997-EE-F

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